One shared mechanism in childhood is the sound category learning mechanism . Consequently, a relationship between language sound categories such as phonemes and musical sound categories such as notes should be evident. To test this relation, the present study applied an experimental design to investigate the effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers.

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One music program employed musical activities to increase interest in reading and writing in preschoolers with special needs, whereas the other music program was primarily designed to enhance musical abilities. The music program that focused on enhancing reading and writing was more efficient in enhancing phonological awareness than the other music program. Because there was not a control group without music https://www.wikipedia.org/ training, it remains unclear whether both programs significantly enhanced the phonological awareness of the children. Additionally, it is not clear whether the advancement in phonological awareness was due to the music program. In a quasi-experiment, Gromko investigated the effect of music training on phonological awareness . Children in the treatment kindergarten received music training for 4 months.

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  • On the word level, phonological awareness refers to the ability to manipulate and analyze larger phonological units (e.g., rhyming and blending words).
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Children in the control kindergarten received no treatment. Gromko revealed significantly greater gains in phoneme segmentation fluency in the treatment kindergarten children than in the control kindergarten children. However, because of the pseudo-random assignment of the preschoolers to the treatment and the control group, it is not possible to interpret the results unequivocally. Children in the treatment group may have systematically differed from children in the control group with respect to confounding variables. Indeed, Gromko reported differences in socioeconomic status between the groups.