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This has led to the “server/client” model of network services. A server is a system that provides a specific service for the rest of the network. (Note that the server and client need not be on different computers. They could crossgrid.org be different programs running on the same computer.) Here are the kinds of servers typically present in a modern computer setup. Note that these computer services can all be provided within the framework of TCP/IP.
From diversity to convergence : British computer networks and the Internet, 1970
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- TCP is the most widely used of the two, and is also the most reliable.
- The IP will then compared to the datagram to check that it was sent to the correct address.
- Technically, datagram is the right word to use when describing TCP/IP.
- At each end of the leased line, a router connects to the LAN on one side and a hub within the WAN on the other.
TCP/IP controls how information is successfully transferred between computers on the Internet. When web pages are requested and then sent over the Internet, another protocol used in addition to TCP/IP is the http protocol, or Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. When files are transferred over the Internet, the FTP protocol, or File Transfer Protocol, is used. Sending email can be done using the SMTP, or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.
For example, when sending data between Rutgers and Berkeley, it is likely that both computers will be on Ethernets. Thus they will both be prepared to handle 1500-octet datagrams. However the connection will at some point end up going over the Arpanet.
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They rely on packet switching and the use if IP addresses to locate devices on an IP network or on the Internet . Because 0 and 255 are used for unknown and broadcast addresses, normal hosts should never be given addresses containing 0 or 255. Addresses should never begin with 0, 127, or any number above 223. Addresses violating these rules are sometimes referred to as “Martians”, because of rumors that the Central University of Mars is using network 225. TCP/IP is a set of protocols developed to allow cooperating computers to share resources across a network. It was developed by a community of researchers centered around the ARPAnet.
ICMP is similar to UDP, in that it handles messages that fit in one datagram. It doesn’t even have port numbers in its header.Since all ICMP messages are interpreted by the network software itself, no port numbers are needed to say where a ICMP message is supposed to go. Again, the header contains some additional fields that have not been discussed.